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Field Pansy, Wild Pansy, Johnny Jump-up - Viola bicolor


Family: Violaceae - Violet family Genus Common Name: Violet Native Status: NativeDicot Annual Herb
Viola bicolor - Field Pansy, Wild Pansy, Johnny Jump-up. Viola bicolor is still considered by some to be a variety of the European Viola kittaibeliana but most authorities now agree that it is a separate species native to the United States. It apparently was more common and originated in the western part of its current range, but due to its weedy nature it has spread eastward, and probably further westward than its original range as well.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WV

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Viola bicolor

Distribution of Viola bicolor in the United States and Canada:
USDA Plants Distribution Map temporarily unavailable.
Blue=Native; Grey=Introduced

Map from USDA Plants Database:
USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 15 Dec 2017). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

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Site: The Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA Date: 2013-March-16Photographer: Gerald C. Williamson
Nikon D7000
Tamron SP 90MM f/2.8 AF Macro
The blossoms are solitary arising from leaf axils on stalks that curve into a nod at the top. There are 5 petals, the lateral ones are bearded and the larger, lower one has a yellow patch at the base. All petals have dark veining. The petals are usually a pale blue, but may be white with a blue tint, as shown here. The petals of Viola arvensis are cream colored and Viola tricolor will have some dark blue on the upper petals. Probably the most reliable differentiator of Viola bicolor is the length of the sepals. The petals of Viola bicolor are distinctly longer than the sepals. The petals of Viola arvensis may be slightly shorter to slightly longer than the sepals, and the petals of Viola tricolor are shorter than the sepals.
Viola bicolor

Site: The Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA Date: 2013-March-29Photographer: Gerald C Williamson
Nikon D7000
The color of the blossom on this plant is more along the lines of what is "normal" for Viola bicolor.
Click on the photo for a larger image
Viola bicolor

Site: The Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA Date: 2013-March-16Photographer: Gerald C Williamson
Nikon D7000
Tamron SP 90MM f/2.8 AF Macro
The lower leaves are more egg-shaped than the upper leaves, which narrow as they go up the stem. The leaves are on petioles, with the lower leaves being on longer petioles. The stipules are prominent, being leafy, deeply lobed, and the same color as the leaves.
Click on the photo for a larger image
Viola bicolor

Site: The Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA Date: 2013-March-16Photographer: Gerald C Williamson
Nikon D7000
Tamron SP 90MM f/2.8 AF Macro
Iím not sure if this is a flower bud yet unopened, or if it is a cleistogamous flower, which are carried by Viola bicolor as well as most other species in Viola. These self-pollinating flowers which donít open are reportedly more common in summer, and since this photo is from early in the spring season, it is probably an unopened bud, although the color might lend itself more toward cleistogamous.
Click on the photo for a larger image
Viola bicolor

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All content except USDA Plants Database map Copyright Gerald C. Williamson 2017
Photographs Copyright owned by the named photographer